ü  The Union and its territory are mentioned under Part – I of the Indian Constitution.

ü  The concerned Articles are from 1 to 4.

v  1 (1): India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.

v  1 (2): The States and UTs thereof shall be as specified in the first schedule

v  1 (3) (a): Territories of states

v  1 (3) (b): UTs as specified in the first schedule

v  1(3) (c): Such other territories as may be acquired

ü  The words ‘Union of states’ is preferred over the ‘Federation of States’ (Why?)

ü  The territory of India consists of
·         The territories of the states

·         The Union Territories

·         Any territories that may be acquired by India

ü  As on today there are 28 states and 7 Union territories in the country.

ü  The 7 Union territories
·         Delhi
·         The Andaman and Nicobar Islands
·         Lakshadweep
·         Dadra and Nagar Haveli
·         Daman and Diu
·         Pondicherry
·         Chandigarh

ü  The names of the states and the Union territories and the territories covered by each of them have been described in the first schedule of the Constitution.

ü  The other countries possessions can be added to India through Constitutional amendments.

ü  Through 10th amendment of the Constitution in the year 1962 the Portuguese enclaves (possessions) of Dadra and Nagar Haveli was constituted into a Union territory.

ü  Similarly Goa, Daman and Diu was added as a Union territory by the 12th Constitutional amendment in the year 1962.

ü  The Pondicherry together with  Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam were ceded to India by the French government in the year 1954.

ü  In the year 1962 through the 14th Constitutional amendment Pondicherry together with  Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam, the French possessions was added as a Union territory.


v  Parliament may by law admit new states into the union of India or establish new states on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

ü  The Article 2 of the Indian Constitution provides two powers to the Parliament.

ü  The power to admit the new states into the Union of India


ü  The power to establish new states.

ü  In the year 1974, the Sikkim Assembly passed the Government of Sikkim Act, 1974.

ü  This act empowered the Government of Sikkim to seek participation and representation of the people of Sikkim in the Indian political institutions for the speedy development of Sikkim.

ü  The resolution also meant for the representation of the people of Sikkim in the Indian Parliamentary system.

ü  In the year 1974 the 35th Constitution amendment act was passed by the Parliament to give effect to the resolution.

·         The main provisions of the 35th amendment act is Sikkim will be an ‘associate state’ of India.

ü  There was a criticism regarding the 35th amendment of the Constitution, since the original Constitution did not mention about the ‘associated state’.

ü  The Parliament passed the 36th amendment act.
ü  Sikkim has been admitted into the Union of India as a state. 

ü  The 36th amendment act came into effect from April 26, 1975.

ü  Article 371F inserted to make some special provisions relating to the admission of Sikkim.


ü  The parliament may by law is empowered to Form a new state

ü  3 (a): By separation of territory from ant state
by uniting 2 or more states or parts of states
ü  By uniting any territory to a part of any state.

ü  3 (b): Increase the area of any state

ü  3 (c): Diminish the area of any state

ü  3 (d): Alter the boundaries of any state

ü  3 (e): Alter the name of any state

ü  The Constitution empowered the Parliament to reorganize the boundaries of the states by a simple majority.

ü  Article 3 lays down two conditions in the formation of new states.

1)      The bill can be introduced in the Parliament only with the prior recommendation of the President.

2)      The President shall before giving recommendation refer the bill to the legislature of the state which is going to be affected by the changes proposed in the bill.

ü  The state legislature must express its view in the time specified by the President.

ü  The President is not bound by the view of the state legislature.

ü  It is not necessary to make afresh reference to the state legislature every time an amendment to the bill is moved and accepted in the Parliament.
ü  In case of Union territory, no reference need be made to the concerned legislature to ascertain its views and the Parliament can itself take any action as it deems fit.


4 (1): Any law referred to Article 2 or 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the first schedule and fourth schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such supplemented, incidental and consequential provisions.

4 (2): No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purpose of Article 368.

ü  It means these can be passed without resorting to any special procedure.

ü  This can be done by a simple majority of the parliament like any other piece of ordinary legislation.



ü  In the year 1950 the states United Provinces was renamed Uttar Pradesh.

ü  In the year 1969 Madras was renamed “Tamil Nadu”. This was done through Madras State (Alternation of name) Act, 1968 with effect from January 14, 1969.

ü  In the year 1973 Mysore was renamed ‘Karnataka’. This was done through Mysore State (Alternation name) Act, 1973.

ü  In the year 1973 Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands renamed ‘Lakshadweep’.

ü  In the year 1992 the Union territory of Delhi was re-designated as the ‘National Capital Territory of Delhi’. This was done through 69th amendment act, 1991 with effect from February 1, 1992.


ü  The name of the country was discussed in the Constituent Assembly. While “Bharat” was the ancient name and India was the modern name. As a member of United Nations also the name of the country was India and all the international agreements were entered in that name. As a compromise ‘India’ that is ‘Bharat’ was accepted.

ü  No state in India could secede from the Union.

ü  The Parliament’s power to diminish the area of any state does not cover cession of Indian Territory to a foreign state.

ü  In the Berubari (West Bengal) case of 1960 on a presidential reference the Supreme Court expressed the opinion that no cession of territory could be made without a constitutional amendment. To give effect to an agreement with Pakistan for transfer of part of the Berubari territory, the 9th constitutional amendment took place in the year 1960.

ü  In the year 1969 the Supreme Court ruled that settlement of a boundary dispute between India and another country does not require a constitutional amendment. It can be done by an executive action since it does not involve cession of Indian Territory to a foreign country.

ü  India is an indestructible Union of destructible states.

ü  The country is described as the ‘Union’ although the Constitution is federal in structure.

ü  At the time of independence India comprised two categories of political units, namely the British provinces and princely states.

ü  The Indian independence Act, 1947 gave 3 options to the princely states, either to join India or Pakistan or remain independent.

ü  Out of 552 princely states 549 integrated with India by the efforts of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

ü  The Hyderabad state was integrated through Police action.

ü  Junagarh was integrated through referendum.

ü  Kashmir was integrated through Instrument of Accession.

ü  The Indian Constitution of 1950 contained 29 states.

ü  The 29 states were classified into 4 parts.

ü  Part A contained 9 erstwhile governor’s provinces of British India.

ü  Part B contained 9 erstwhile princely states with legislatures.

ü  Part C contained 10 states. (Erstwhile Chief Commissioner’s provinces of British India and some of the erstwhile princely states).

ü  In Part D the Andaman and Nicobar Islands were kept as the solitary (lonely).

ü  In January 2012, the DMK (Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam) demanded that the taluks of Devikulam and Peermedu, now in Kerala and forming parts of catchment of Periyar river be merged with Tamil Nadu. This demand was first made by DMK way back in 1956 and 1957.

ü  The decision for the creation of a new state “Telenagana’ has been announced by the Congress Working Committee on July 30, 2013. At the same time the dormant demands from various states have been surfaced.

ü  Paschimanchal, Harit Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Awadh Pradesh and Purvanchal in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

ü  Vidarbha in Maharashtra

ü  Gorkhaland in West Bengal

ü  Bodoland and Karbi Anglong  in Assam

ü  On December 4, 2013 the GoM (Group of Ministers) submitted its final recommendations to the Cabinet.