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WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?



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SHALL WE KNOW THE MEANING OF THE WORD GEOGRAPHY?


ü  The word Geography has evolved from two Greek words.

ü  Geo            -       The Earth

ü  Graphein    -       To Write.

ü  So Geography literally means “To write about the earth”.

ü  In general term Geography is the study of the earth.

ü  Hence we will be reading about the

·        Lithosphere – Solid earth crust

·        Atmosphere - Gases

·        Hydrosphere – Water

 ü  Greek Scholars are considered to be the earliest Geographers.

 ü  Hecate-us and Theophrastus are considered to be the earliest geographers.

 ü  Kant defined Geography as the chorological science.

 ü  The word Geography was first used by Eratosthenes (Greek scholar lived during 276–195 BC).

 ü  Eratosthenes also credited for inventing the system of latitude and longitude. (These are the Horizontal and Vertical imaginary lines on the earth. We learn more about this in later chapters).

 ü  Eratosthenes was also the first person to calculate the circumference of the earth.

 ü  Eratosthenes was the first person to calculate the tilt of the Earth axis.







Eratosthenes, one person credited with so many inventions. Isn't interesting?

·        The Word “Geography

·        Latitudes and Longitudes

·        Circumference of earth

·        Earth Axis

·        Leap Day


There are 3 important theories with reference to the earth.

     1.      Geocentric Theory
     2.      Heliocentric Theory
     3.      Planetary Motion Theory

(Theory is an analysis given by a scientist. On single aspect, more than one scientist tries to explain his/her experiments/observations. Hence there are number of theories on various aspects).


Now let us try to know what are the theories that related to the earth?


1.      Geocentric Theory: (Earth is at the centre).

ü  This Theory is given by Ptolemy. (90 – 168 AD).


PTOLEMY


ü  Ptolemy is the author of the book “Geography”.

ü  According to this theory the earth is at the centre of the Solar system.

ü  Note: The Sun and its Planets put together is called the Solar system.


2.      Heliocentric Theory: (Sun is at the centre).

ü  This theory is given by Copernicus. (Poland, 1473 – 1543 AD).


COPERNICUS 


ü  According to this theory the Sun is at the centre of the Solar System.


3.      Planetary Motion Theory:

This theory is given by Kepler. (Germany, 1571 – 1630 AD).



KEPLER



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