ü  The study of minerals is called Mineralogy.

ü  A mineral occurs naturally.

ü  This is a solid chemical substance.

ü  It has a crystalline structure.

ü  It has specific physical properties.

ü  (Rock is different from mineral. A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals).

ü  Industrial minerals are those minerals that are commercially valuable.


ü  The principle ore of Aluminum is Bauxite.

What is Ore?

This is the raw material of any mineral

ü  Australia, Jamaica, Guinea, Brazil, USA, Russia are the chief producers of Bauxite.

ü  Production of Aluminum from bauxite is a highly energy consuming process.

ü  Australia, USA and Russia are the chief producers of Aluminum.


ü  This is a very important energy mineral.

ü  The main types of coal are

v  Anthracite

v  Bituminous

v  Lignite

v  Peat

ü  Anthracite has the highest (85%) carbon content.

ü  Peat has the lowest (35%) carbon content.

ü  Bituminous is most widely occurring type of coal.

ü  China is the leading producer of coal.

ü  USA has world’s largest recoverable coal reserves.

ü  Japan is the largest importer of Coal.


ü  Chile, Peru, USA, Canada are the main producers.

ü  Most of the copper is obtained from copper oxides and sulphides.

ü  Chile is the largest producer of copper in the World.

ü  Where is Chile?

Look at South America map. Chile occupying a narrow and long strip on the west coast of South America. Chile has Andes Mountains towards East and the Pacific Ocean towards West.


ü  The leading producers are Botswana, Russia, South Africa, Republic of Congo and Australia.

ü  This is also the hardest substance.

ü  This is an allotrope of Carbon.

ü  What is allotropy?

v  Allotropy is the property of some chemical elements to exist in 2 or more different molecular forms known as allotropes of these elements.

v  Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon. These are the pure forms of the same element carbon that differ in structure.

ü  The diamond has highest hardness.  

ü  In India Madhya Pradesh is the only state that produces diamonds. Majhgawan area of Panna district in Madhya Pradesh is the only diamond producing mine in India.


ü  This is a noble metal.

ü  South Africa, USA, Australia, Canada are the leading producers.

ü  Witwatersrand in South Africa is the most important gold mining region.

ü  Gold is the most malleable and ductile metal known.

·        Ductility means ability to be stretched.

·        Malleability means ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling.

·        Ductility and malleability are the aspects of plasticity.

ü  Gold is represented by the symbol Au.

ü  Kolar Gold fields in Bangarpet Taluk of Kolar district of Karnataka from where the gold is extracted.


ü  This is the basic raw material for the iron and steel industry.

ü  It is one of the most widely occurring minerals.

ü  Iron ore represents almost 95% of all metal used per year.

ü  Leading producers are China, Brazil, Australia, India and Russia.

ü  China is the largest producer of iron ore in the country.

Commercial ores of iron are:

v  Magnetite (More than 60% iron)

v  Haematite (50% to 65% iron)

v  Limonite (less than 50% of iron)

v  Siderite.


ü  The most important ore of silver is argentine.

ü  This is also a precious metal.

ü  Mexico, Australia, Chile are the chief producers.

ü  Mexico is the largest producer in the World.


ü  Manganese is used for making steel.

ü  The main ores are pyrolusite and psilomelane.

ü  China, South Africa, Australia, Ukraine are the leading producers of Manganese.


ü  Galena is the chief ore of lead.

ü  The chemical symbol of lead is Pb (Plumbum).

ü  Lead is a soft and malleable material.

ü  This occurs in association with Zinc.

ü  Australia, China, USA, Peru are the chief producers.


ü  This occurs in liquid state.

ü  Spain, China and Italy are the chief producers.

ü  The chemical symbol of Mercury is Hg.

ü  Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. (Bromine is also liquid under these conditions).

ü  Mercury occurs in the form of cinnabar ore.


ü  This is a non metallic mineral.

ü  Mica is a bad conductor of heat and electricity.

ü  India and USA are the leading producers.


ü  This is commonly called petroleum.

ü  This is also called crude oil.

ü  This is a mixture of combustible hydro-carbons.

ü  This is used to produce gasoline (petrol) and other petroleum based products from crude oil.

ü  Saudi Arabia, USA, Russia, Iran are the chief producers.

ü  Saudi Arabia is the largest producer.

ü  USA is the largest importer.


ü  This is also a mixture of carbon and other combustible gases that are called hydro-carbons.

ü  Russia, USA, Canada are the chief producers.

ü  Russia is the leading exporter.

ü  USA is the leading importer.

ü  Natural gas primarily consists of Methane.

ü  Before natural gas is used as fuel except methane all other material are removed.