ü  The natural vegetation is the vegetation or plant cover in its original state without significant modifications by man.

ü  An association of plants, predominantly trees, is known as forests or natural vegetation.

ü  The factors that influence the growth of plants are as follows.

ü  Temperature: A plant reqires at least a monthly average temperature of 60C for its growth.

ü  Plants do not survive below this limit of temperature.

ü  Rainfall: Various types of plants require varied amount of precipitation.

ü  Hygrophilous plants will grow in damp and humid climate as they require much water.

ü  Xerophylous plants require very little water and as such they grow in dry climate.

ü  Soil: The chemical contents of the soil favour the growth of different plants.

ü  Altitude: The factor affects plant growth as the temperature falls with the rise in the altitude.

ü  Plant species differ with the variation in the elevation.

ü  Wind: The areas characterized by violent winds have fewer trees. 

ü  Excessive flow of wind restricts the growth of trees as the rate of transpiration is increased.

 ü  Slope: Mountain slopes function differently on the leeward and the windward sides determining the types of vegetation on the two sides of a mountain.

 ü  Sunlight: Sunlight favors the growth of plants by supplying chlorophyll necessary for the manufacture of plant food.

ü The state of Madhya Pradesh had the highest coverage of forests in the country.

ü After the formation of Chhattisgarh in 2000, however, the new state has got about 44 per cent of the parent state’s forest resources.


ü  Tropical Evergreen or Rain Forests:  These are dense forests of luxuriant growth.

ü  They look evergreen as their trees shed leaves at different times of the year.

ü  They are prevalent in areas where the annual rainfall is over 200 cm and the average annual humidity exceeds 77 percent.

ü  The annual temperature is 0C to 270C on an average.

ü  Mahogany, bamboo, ivory wood, ebony, rubber trees are the important trees that grow are in this type of forests.


ü  North-East, Estern regions of subtropical Himalayas (Terai), western portions of the Western Ghats, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are well known for the ever green forests.

ü  Littoral Forests: These are also called Swamp Forests.

ü  They are also called tidal forests.


ü  These occur in and around the tidal creeks and along the deltas of the Rivers Ganga, Mahanadi, Krishna and Godavari.

ü  The trees, mainly evergreen, have profuse growth and stilt like roots.

ü  These are found in the great Sunder ban delta.

ü  Dry Tropical Forests: These forests are mostly prevalent in regions with an annual rainfall of 90 to 130 cm.

ü  They require a mean annual temperature of 23 0C to 270C

ü  The forests like teak, rosewood, axle wood, babul thorn, kherja, kanju, andd neem fall under this category.

ü  Riparian Forests: They are common in wet places particularly along river banks.


ü  These are commonly present in other wetlands where rainfalls is  less than 50 cm.

ü  Neem, shisham,  pipal, babul, tamarind are common in such regions.

ü  Subtropical Broad Leaved Hill Forests: Such forests are common in the highlands of Bastar, Pachmari, Palni Hills, Khasi Hills.

ü  With an abundance of evergreen trees, these forests are called Shola forests in southern India.

ü  Montana Wet Temperature Forests: These types of forests are generally located at a height of 1,800-3,000 m above sea level.

ü  These are present especially in the hills of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the eastern Himalayas.

ü  These forests occur in regions with a mean annual temperature of about 110C to 140C.

ü  The required mean annual rainfall of 150 to 300 cm.

ü  The important trees are oaks, magnolia, chilauni, birch, plum, michilus, deodar and hemlock.

ü  Alpine Forests: These forests cover the Alpine areas in the Himalayas.

ü  These are at a height of 2,880 m to 3,700m.

ü  They constitute dwarf shrubs of juniper, fir, pine, birch and rhododendrons.

ü  On the northern slopes of the Himalayas, they represent dry, xerophytes’ vegetation.


ü  The term ‘wildlife’ refers to the wild undomesticated animals living in their natural habitats such as forests, grasslands, etc.

India is divided into ecological sub-regions. They are

·   The Himalayan Mountain System
·   The Peninsular Indian Sub-region
·   Tropical evergreen forest region
·   Andaman and Nicobar Island region


ü  This is again sub divided into three regions.

· The Himalaya Foothills

· The Himalayas (high altitude region)

· Western Himalayas

Peninsular Indian Sub – region

ü  This is considered to be a true home of Indian wildlife with two distinct zones

ü  Peninsular India and its extension into the drainage basin of the Ganges river system

ü  Desert region of Rajasthan.

Tropical Evergreen Forest Region or Indo - Malayan Sub - region

ü  This is also called Indo-Malayan Sub-region.            
ü  The region receives heavy rainfall.

ü  This region is very rich in animals.

ü  The most prominent ones are hollyhock gibbons (only ape found in India), golden languor, capped languor or leaf monkey, etc.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands:

ü  These islands houses many species of mammals, reptiles and marine  animals.

ü  They constitute about 75 per cent of the total mammals found on these islands.

ü  These islands house rare birds such as Narcondum hornbill, Nicobar pigeon and mega pod and Mangrove Swamps of Sunderbans.

Wildlife Conservation Programmes 

ü  A number of Wildlife Acts have been made from time to time by the Union and the state governments.

 Indian Board for Wildlife (IBWL):

ü  The Indian Board for Wildlife is the apex advisory body in the field of wildlife conservation in the country.

ü  The Indian Board for Wildlife is headed by the Prime Minister of India.


ü  This act came into force in the year 1972.

ü  This act is accepted by all states except Jammu and Kashmir which has its own Act.

ü  This act governs wildlife conservation and protection of endangered species.

ü  The act prohibits trade in rare and endangered species.


ü  The Wild Life Institute of India was established in 1982.

ü  Initially this institution worked under the Ministry of Agriculture.

ü  Later the institution was brought under the Ministry of Environment and Forest.


ü  The Central Zoo Authority was established in the year 1992.

ü  The headquarters are located in New Delhi.

ü  This was established under the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.

ü  This is to upgrade the management of zoos in the country with a view to enhance their role in conservation.


ü  This it is spread over 176 acres.

ü  This houses about 1200 animals and birds of 135 species.

ü  Project Tiger was launched in 1973 on the basis of the recommendations of a special  task force of the Indian  Board of wildlife  to

ü  Ensure maintenance of available population of tiger in India,

ü  Preserve the areas of such biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people.

ü  Project Tiger is a centrally - sponsored scheme.

ü  Nagarjunasagar tiger reserve in Andhra Pradesh is the largest tiger reserve.

ü  The Pench tiger reserve in Maharashtra is the smallest tiger reserve.

ü  Bandipur (Karnataka) tiger reserve is the first tiger reserve (1973 -74) in the country.


ü  Balpakram Wildlife Sanctuary situated in the Garo Hills in Meghalaya houses a variety of animals but is well known for tigers, elephants and bison.

ü  Bandipur Sanctuary along the Karnataka - Tamilnadu border is the home of wild animals like tigers, elephants, bears, sambhars, panthers and deer.

ü  Corbett National Park, Utarakhand, has elephants, chitas, sambhars, nilgais and sloth bear as well.

ü  Dudwa National Park in Lakhimpur Kheri, Uttar Pradesh is well known mainly for its tiger, nilgai, sambhar and panther population.

ü  Ghana Bird Sanctuary is famous sanctuary of water birds. Siberian cranes, storks, herons, spoonbills and teals can be seen here. It is located in Bharatpur, Rajasthan.

ü  Hazaribagh National Park, houses a variety of animals and birds such as leopards, tigers, samhars and chitas. This is situated in Hazaribagh, Jharkhand.

ü  Jaldapara Sanctuary, West Bengal houses the famous Indian rhinoceros.

ü  Kanha National Park is the home of a variety of species including the panther, tiger, nilgai, antelope and barking deer. This is located in Madhya Pradesh.

ü  Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary located in the Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu is famous for elephants, deer and pigs.

ü  Namdapha National Park is the home of elephants and tigers. This is located in Tirap, Arunachal Pradesh.

ü  Palamau is a tiger reserve in Daltenganj, Jharkhand which has many other animals such as elephants, leopards and panthers.

ü  Parkal in Warangal, Andhra Pradesh is popular for animals like tigers, panthers, nilgais and chitas.

ü  Periyar Sanctuary is the home of tigers, panthers, elephants, sambhars, gaurs and the wild boar. It is located in Idukki, Kerala.

ü  Ranganthitoo Bird sanctuary which comprises some islands in River Cauvery, Karnataka is well known for its many species of birds.

ü  Shivpuri National Park in Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh houses different species of birds and animals.

ü  Sunderbans, the tiger sanctuary in Sunderbans, West Bengal, is also the home of the wild bear, crocodile and deer.

ü  Vedanthangal bird sanctuary is located in an artificial lake in Tamil Nadu.

ü  Wild Ass Sanctuary in Rann of Kutch, Gujarat is famous for its wild ass. Wolves, chinkaras and nilgais are also found here.