ü  Minerals are the naturally occurring materials which when exploited economically are called ores.
ü  There are more than 5000 mines in India.
ü  There are more than 800 metallic mines.
ü  The rest are non-metallic mines.
ü  Minerals Sector employs over 10 lakh people.
ü  The mineral sector accounts for 12% of the industrial output.
ü  The mineral sector contributes to 3% of GDP.
Classification of Minerals:

                  Metallic                                               Non-Metallic                     Energy
Ferrous                       Non-Ferrous                                                               
Iron Ore                       Gold                                  Potash                                Coal         
Manganese                   Silver                                 Dolomite                           Petroleum
Chromite                      Copper                               Mica
Pyrote                          Lead                                  Gypsum
Tungsten                      Bauxite                              Limestone             
Nickle                          Tin                                     Nitrate
Cobalt                          Megnisium


ü  The total reserves of India are about 20% of the world reserves.
ü  Chief variation of iron ores are:


ü  This is best quality ore.
ü  This contains 72 percent pure iron.
ü  This is found in Jharkhand, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu



ü  This is the second best quality.
ü  This contains 60 to70 percent pure iron.
ü  This is available in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Orissa, MP, Goa, Chhattisgarh.



ü  This contains 40 to 60 percent iron.
ü  This is yellow and light brown in color.
ü  This is not very significant.



ü  This is an impure iron ore.
ü  This contains 40 to 50 percent pure iron.


ü  The Manganese is primarily used for making Iron and Steel.
ü  This acts as a basic raw material for manufacturing its alloy.
ü  It is also used in manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, batteries and China clay.



ü  It is an oxide of iron and chromium.
ü  Orissa is the largest producer of Chromite.
ü  Karnataka is the second largest producer of chromite.
ü  It is widely used in Metallurgical, refractories and chemical industries.
ü  Japan is the largest buyer.



ü  It is an excellent conductor of electricity and is ductile
ü  Thus it is used in electrical machinery, wires and cables.



ü  It does not occur in a free state.
ü  It is found in association with copper, uranium, etc.
ü  It is an important alloying material.
ü  This is used for rust proof in steel production.
ü  It is used in Hydrogenation of fats.
ü  Singhbhum, Orissa, Rajasthan are the chief producer.


ü  Galena, chalco pyrites, iron pyrites and other sulphide are the important ores.
ü  It is used in dry batteries, electrodes textile and die-casting.
ü  It is found mainly in Degona in Rajasthan and Chandpathar in West Bengal.



ü  Its chief ore is wolfram.
ü  It imparts self-hardening quality to steel.
ü  It is mostly used in manufacturing ammunitions, armor plates, heavy gun, etc.
ü  It is found mainly in Degona in Rajasthan and Chandpathar in West Bengal.



ü  This is an important ore for aluminum production.
ü  It is clay like substance found in tropical late rite soil.


Production of Bauxite:
State                                  000 tonnes            Production (%)
      Orissa                           1890                      36
      Gujarat                         979                        17
      Jharkhand                    589                        12
      Chhattisgarh                589                        12
      MP                               520                        11

Non-Metallic Minerals:


ü  Its main ores are Marguerite, Phlogopite, Biotite.
ü  It is a valuable mineral for the electrical and electronics industry.
ü  Jharkhand has the richest deposits of Mica.
ü  Andhra Pradesh stands at number two position with 40% of production.
ü  Rajasthan accounts for only 7%.



ü  It contains CaCo3.
ü  It is used for cement making and iron and steel industry.
ü  Important producing states are MP, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka,etc.,

ü  Limestone with more than 10% magnesium is called dolomite.
ü  Orissa is the largest producer of Dolomite.
ü  Orissa accounts for 50% of the production.
ü  Burmotrapur is the chief production centre.
ü  Chhattisgarh is the 2nd most significant producer.
ü  Chattisgarh account for 22% of the total production.
ü  Chaibasa of Jharkhand is another important producer.


ü  Chrysolite and tremolite are collectively called asbestos.
ü  It has fibrous structure.
ü  The Asbestos is resistant to fire.
ü  It is used in fire-proof materials, paints, insulation, etc.
ü  Rajasthan is the largest producer of Asbestos.
ü  The main producing centers are Udaipur and Durgapur districts.
ü  Pulivendula Taluk in Andhra Pradesh is another significant producer.


ü  It is an alteration product of dunites.
ü  It is primarily used for refractory bricks.
ü  This is also used as a bond in abrasives, tiles, artificial stones, etc.
ü  Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of Magnesite.
ü  Chalk Hills near Salem has the world's largest magnesite deposits.
ü  Karnataka and Rajasthan are other important states.


ü  This is available in metamorphic aluminous rocks.
ü  India is the largest producer of Kyanite in the world.
ü  Jharkhand has the largest deposits.
ü  Lapsabaru to Kharsawan in Saraikela has the largest deposits.

ü  It is a hydrated sulphate of calcium which occurs as transparent minerals in beds or bands in sedimentary deposits.
ü  Rajasthan is the largest producer of gypsum in India.
ü  Tamil Nadu and Jammu & Kashmir are the other important states that produce Gypsum.


ü  This is an allotrope of carbon.
ü  It is highly lustrous, hardest transparent substance.
ü  The main diamond bearing areas are Panna belt in MP.
ü  The other important areas are Wajrakarur Kimbirlite and grovel of Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh.


Atomic Minerals:


ü  This is a radioactive mineral.
ü  This is mainly produced from monazite sand of Kerala beaches.


ü  The Beryllium is used as a moderator in nuclear reactor.
ü  This is found in Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.


ü  This is also called Black Gold for its high utility.
ü  This is a chief mineral fuel.
ü  It is an inflammable organic substance.
ü  This is composed mainly of hydrocarbons.
ü  The Coal is found in the form of sedimentary rocks.
ü  The Coal is used as a fuel to supply heat or light or both.
ü  Coal is a Combustible matter in carbon.
ü  It constitutes about 60 percent of total commercial energy consumed.
ü  The power sector and industries account for 94% of its total consumption.
ü  The states Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh are the important producers of coal.

Types of Coal:


ü  This is the best quality coal.
ü  The Anthracite contains 80 percent of Carbon.
ü  This is hard, compact and jet black.
ü  This is found only in the Nichagam and Karakum areas of Jammu and Kashmir.

ü  This contains 60 to 80 percent of carbon.
ü  The Bituminous is most profound and most widely used.
ü  It has high calorific value.
ü  This is found mostly in Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa and Chhattisgarh.


ü  Lignite is also known as brown coal.
ü  The Lignite contains about 60 percent of carbon.
ü  It is found in Neyvelli in Tamil Nadu, Palna in Rajasthan, Lakhimpur in Assam and Karewa of Jammu and Kashmir.
ü  Tamil Nadu alone accounts for 90% of the reserve and 80% of the production.
ü  Neyvelli has the largest lignite deposits in South-East Asia

ü  This marks the first stage of transformation of wood into coal.
ü  The Peat contains 50 percent of carbon.
ü  It burns like wood and leaves lot of ash.
ü  Erstwhile Madhya Pradesh has 20 percent of total coal reserves but contributes 30 percent of the coal production.

The main coal fields:

ü  Umaria, Korar, Sohagpur, Singrauli
ü  Tatapani, Jhilmilli, Bisrampur, Kuraisia, Rampur.
ü  Mand river and Raigarh
ü  Pench and Kanhan valley in Chindwara district
ü  Patakhera, Dalhara and Shahpur in Betul.

ü  Petroleum is an inflammable liquid.
ü  This is obtained from sedimentary formations.
ü  It is primarily made of hydrocarbon which exists to the amount of 90 to 95 percent and other organic compounds containing Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulphur.
ü  Petro-chemical industries, cement, fertilizer industries and locomotive heavily depend on this mineral liquid.
Distribution of Petroleum:

State                                                          Production (in M.T.)        Production (%)

Maharashtra                                               27,278                                     63%
Mumbai High
Gujarat                                                       12,212                                     21%
Assam                                                                                                   16.5%
Tamil Nadu                                                370                                          1.4%
Arunachal Pradesh                                     59                                            0.15%
ü  Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India.
ü  Main oil bearing strata found in upper Brahmaputra valley.
ü  Digboi field in Dibrugarh district is the oldest oldest oil field of India.
ü  Naharkatiya is another important oil field located southwest of Digboi.
ü  In Gujarat the ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation) in 1958 struck oil deposits in the Gujarat plains at Ankaleshwar.
ü  Oil here is found in an anticline.
ü  Jawahar Lal Nehru called it 'Fountain of Prosperity’.
ü  Oil from Ankaleshwar field is refined at Trombay and Koyali refiner.
ü  Lunej field is located in the Khambhat region.
Off-shore oil fields:

ü  In Mumbai high petroleum was struck in 1974 by ONGC.
ü  It is located on the continental shore of the western coast 175 km northwest of Mumbai.
ü  The oil belongs to Miocene period.
ü  Drilling is done by specially designed platform called 'Sagarsmata'.
ü  Bassein is located little south of Mumbai High.

Other oil Fields:  

ü  Jwalamukhi, Nurpur, Dharmsal and Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh.
ü  Musalgarh in Jammu  and Kashmir.
ü  Krishna-Godavari Basin.
ü  Kaveri Basin.
ü  Continental shelf of Andaman and Nicobar.
ü  Eastern and western coasts of India.

Natural Gas:

ü  After 1985, Natural Gas has become important with the discovery of oil wells at Cavery off-shore and Nanda in Cambay basin, also Tanot in Jaisalmer basin.
ü  Andada in Gujarat
ü  Adiyakkamangalam in Tamil Nadu
ü  Khoraghat in Assam and
ü  Mumbai High are important gas fields in India.

PLACE                       In Cubic Million  Production (%)

Mumbai High               13,976                   80%
Gujarat                         1,793                     11%
Assam                          1,217                     8%
Tamil Nadu                  306                        1.5%
      Tripura                         108                        0.6%