ü  Sher Shah Suri Marg (GT Road) connects Amritsar to Calcutta.
ü  The first serious attempt to develop roadways was made in 1943 with Nagpur Plan.
ü  In 1961 ‘Twenty Year Road Plan’ was  drawn which  increased the road length from 6.56 lakh km to 10.60 lakh km.

Classification of Roads

National Highways

ü  The natural highways are constructed and maintained by CPWED (Central Public Works Department)
ü  These are for interstate and strategic movements and connect the state capitals.
ü  They carry nearby 40 % of the road traffic in India.
ü  Total length is 42,000 km.


ü  The state highways are constructed and maintained by state governments.
ü  They connect the state capital with district headquarters.
ü  Total length is 1, 50,000 (approx) in India


ü  The construction and maintenance is the responsibility of Zilla Parishad.
ü  They connect district headquarters with Tehsils and Blocks
ü  Total length is 6, 50,528 km.


ü  The construction and maintenance of village roads is the responsibility of village Panchayats.
ü  These roads connects the village with neighboring towns.
ü  Total length is 14, 55,896 km.


N.H.                            Len. km.       State

NH-81                         100    Bihar, W.Bangal

NH-82                         130    Bihar

NH-83                         130    Bihar

NH -84                        60      Bihar

NH-85                         95      Bihar

NH-86                         360    U.P. , M.P.

NH-87                         83      U.P.

NH-88                         115    Himachal Pradesh

NH-89                         300    Rajasthan

NH-152     40              Assam

NH-212     250            Kerala, Karnataka

NH-213     130            Kerala

NH-214     270            Andhra Pradesh

NH-215     348            Orissa

Total         2411         


No. 1.      New  Delhi - Ambala - Jalandhar - Amritsar.

No.2.       Delhi - Mathura - Agra - Kanpur - Allahabad - Varanasi - Calcutta.

No.3.       Agra - Gwalior - Nasik - Bombay

No.4.       Thana and Madras Via Pune and Belgaum

No. 5.      Calcutta and Madras

No.6.       Calcutta - Dhule

No. 7       Varanasi - Kanyakumari    

No.8.       Delhi - Bombay (Via Jaipur, Baroda and Ahmedabad)

No.9.       Bombay - Vijayawada

No. 10.        Delhi - Fazilka

No.11.         Jaipur - Bikaner

No.22.     Ambala - Kalka - Shimla - Rampur - Chini (Indo - Tibet Border)

No.24.     Delhi - Bareilly - Lucknow

*The National  highways No –7 is the longest high way of India.


ü  After the Natinal Highways, there is a plan under the consideration of Central Road Transport Ministry to create Super National Highways.
ü  These Super National Highways of about 14,000 km length.
ü  Through this there is a plan to link big sea ports of the country with important cities.
ü  In the construction of these Highways, the role of Private Sector will be important.
ü  This will be done on the basis of BOT (Build Operate Transfer) by Private Sector.
ü  The  Government of India has received 22 feasibility reports for the building of Super  National Highways and the estimated cost is about Rs. 1,50,000 crore.
ü  Out of these, 10 proposals have come from multinational companies.
ü  After the amendment in clause 9 of National Highway ordinance 1956, the Rajya Sabha passed the National Highway (Amendment) Act 1997 on March 11, 1997 through voice vote.
ü  This gave the right to the central government of enacting laws regarding the land acquisition for the development of National Highways.
ü  The National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) was constituted under the National Highway Authority of India Act 1988 and was made operational in February 1995.
ü  Initially it was entrusted with the task of implementing five externally aided National Highway improvement projects.
ü  Subsequently it has been mandated to implement the National Highways Development Project (NHDP) comprising 4/6 laning of 13252 km. of national highways having two components.
ü  The Golden Quadrilateral connecting four metropolitan cities of Delhi,Mumbai,  Chennai and Kolkata (5952 km) and
ü  (b). North - South and East - West corridors (7300 km), connecting Srinagar to Kanya Kumari and sileher to Saurashtra respectively and Salem to Cochin.


ü  Trains are the most important means of transport.
ü  They account for nearly 3/5th of the passenger traffic in India.
ü  This also accounts 4/5th of the freight traffic in India.
ü  Indian railways system is the largest in Asia.
ü  Indian railway system is fourth largest in the world.
ü  This is the biggest departmental public undertaking in the country.
ü  It is also the world’s second largest railway system under a single management.
ü  The first train in India steamed off from Bombay to Thane, a stretch of 34 km. in 1853.
ü  The network of railways has increased up to 62,809 km.
ü  The Indian railways operate in three different gauges.

ü Broad Gauge
ü Metre Gauge
ü Narrow Gauge

ü The broad gauge accounts for nearly 50 % of the traffic followed by meter gauge 43 % of the total route length.
ü The total route - length of the Indian Railways is about 63,000 km.
ü  Railways are divided into 16 zones, headed by a General Manager who is responsible to the Railway Board for operation, maintenance and financial matters.
ü  Out of the 16 zones Northern Railways is the longest with a length of 10,995 km.


ü  Indian Railways has introduced a new marketing strategy of Container services in 1980 with 7 container depots which in 1996 have expanded to 32 locations.
ü  The Container Corporation of India (CONCOR), a public  sector undertaking  provide door to door  services for domestic users, transportation in bulk for small customers  and  international transport in International standards organization (ISO) containers.


 ü  In March 1990, the Konkan Railway Plan was started to provide a link by the shortest rail route between the states of Goa, Maharashtra, and Karnataka.
 ü  This includes, the 760 km distance between Apta and Mangalore.
 ü  The Registration of Konkan Rail Corporation was made on 26 July, 1990 under the company act.
ü  51 % share equity of the corporation belongs to Indian Railways.
ü  The Konkan Railway Project has been completed on January 26, 1998.
ü  The rail traffic has been started between Roha (Maharashtra) and Mangalore (Karnataka). Konkan Railways ensures maximum speed of 160 km per hour.


ü  Central   Mumbai, Victoria terminus
ü  Eastern   Calcutta   
ü  Northern New Delhi
ü  North Estern            Gorakhpur
ü  North –East-Frontier           Maligaon - Guwahati
ü  Southern Chennai
ü  South Central           Secunderabad
ü  South Eastern          Calcutta
ü  Western  Mumbai - Churchgate
ü  East Cost     - Bhubaneswar
ü  East Central - Hajipur
ü  North Cental -          Allahabad
ü  North Western         Jaipur
ü  South Western         Bangalore (Hubli)
ü  West Central            Jabalpur
ü  Bilaspur  - Bilaspur


        The international airports in India.

ü  Indira Gandhi International Air port                          -           New Delhi
ü  Amritsar International Air port                                   -           Amritsar
ü  Lokpriya Gopinath Bordolio International Air Port   -           Guwahati
ü  Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Air port         -           Ahmadabad
ü  Netaji Subash Chandra Bose International Air port   -           Kolkata
ü  Chatrapati Shivaji International Air port                    -           Mumbai
ü  Goa Air port                                                                -           Vasco da Gama
ü  Rajiv Gandhi International Airport                            -           Hyderabad
ü  Chennai International Airport                                     -           Chennai
ü  Bangalore International Airport                                  -           Bangalore
ü  Cochin international Airport                                       -           Cochin
ü  Trivendram International Airport                               -           Tiruvanantapuram

Previous names of some of the international Airports:

v New Delhi           – Palam
v Kolkata                - Dum Dum
v Mumbai               - Santa Cruz
v Chennai               - Meenambakam


ü  Air India was established in the year 1953.
ü  Air India has bilateral air services agreement with more than 100 countries in the World.


ü  The Indian Air line was established in 1953.


ü  This is basically meant for providing helicopter support services to oil sector, hill station and remote areas.
ü  It also provides air support services to several customers which includes ONGC, Punjab, M.P., Lakshadweep Administration, GAIL, BSF and also caters to private sector.

ü  The liberalization process in civil aviation took wing in April 1990 with the cargo open skies policies.
ü  The Air Corporation Act, 1953 was repealed on March 1, 1994.
ü  This put an end to the monopoly of Indian Airlines, Air India and Vayudoot over scheduled air transport services.


ü  This is the most efficient, least costly and environment friendly means of transportation.
ü  The total length of navigable water ways in India comprising rivers, canals, backwaters, crecks, etc. is 14,500 km.
ü  Out of the total navigable water ways 3700 km is navigable by mechanized boats.
ü  India has a net of 4300 navigable canals out of which only 900 km is navigable by mechanized boats.


ü  India has a long coastline in the Indian Ocean.
ü  India has 11 major and 139 medium and small ports.
ü  There  are 12 major ports handling 90 % of the cargo


ü  This is a natural harbour.
ü  This is located on the western coast of India.
ü  Mineral oil that is imported from South West Asia is received here.
ü  Most of the foreign trade with Western countries and East African countries takes place on the west coast.
ü  This is the biggest port in India
ü  Another port Nhava Sheva is developed to relieve the pressure on Mumbai port.


ü  This is a tidal port.
ü  This is the first free port in India.
ü  This is located on the eastern end of Rann of Kutch
ü  From here the export of Crude oil, fertilizer, salt, foodgrain, cotton, cement takes place.
ü  It was created out of compulsion since Karachi port went to Pakistan after partition.


ü  This is on the coast of Goa.
ü  This is also a natural port.
ü  Iron ore is exported from Goa.
ü  It occupies fifth position in handling the traffic.


ü  This is on the coast of Karnataka.
ü  From here the export of iron ore from Kudramukh mines takes place.
ü  It handles the import of fertilizer edible oil, petroleum products.


ü  This is also a natural harbour.
ü  This forms at the backwaters of Kerala coast.
ü  From here the export of tea, coffee, spices, cashew, etc takes place.
ü  Sheltered backwater bay
ü  The import of petroleum for Kochi refinery also takes place here.


ü  This is located at the coast of Tamil Nadu.
ü  This handles coal, food grains, edible oil, sugar and petro products.
ü  This is developed in the recent times.


 ü  This is an artificial harbour.
 ü  This is located on the east coast in the state of Tamil Nadu.
 ü  It handles petroleum products, mineral oil and iron ore.
 ü  This is the oldest port in India.
 ü  The lesser depth of water and tropical cyclones makes it impossible sometime.


 ü  This is located on the eastern coast along Andhra Pradesh.
 ü  This is naturally deep water and protected.
 ü  The export of Crude oil, petroleum product, iron ore takes place.
 ü  It is the deepest land locked and protected port.


ü  This is located on the Odisha coast.
ü  It has capacity of handling 6.05 million tonnes.


ü  This is a riverine port.
ü  This is an Inland location on Hoogli River.
ü  Goods from South east, Australia and New – Zealand are imported here.
ü  This is a Tidal port.
ü  The Kolkata port suffers from problem of silting.


This is located on Hooghli.

This is meant for releasing congestion at Kolkata port.