ü Total number of vitamins 13.  They are vitamins A, B complex (8), C, D, E and K.

ü Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble vitamins.

ü Vitamins B and C are water soluble.

ü B and C dissolve in water and are not stored. Hence needed in daily diet.

ü Excess A, D, E and K are stored in liver. They are not needed every day in diet.

ü Blood is classified into A, B, AB and O.

ü The blood group ‘AB’ is Universal acceptor.

ü The blood group ‘O’ is Universal donor.


ü The red colour of the blood is due to the presence of the iron compound called hemoglobin.

ü Blood consists of
·       RBC (Red Blood Corpuscles - Erythrocytes)

·       WBC (White Blood Corpuscles - Leucocytes)

·       Platelets

·       Plasma

ü ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: Common cause for memory loss in older people. The nerves in different parts of the brain die prematurely leading to the deficiency in Acetylcholine. It is a neurotransmitter that is involved in memory function. This is a progressive disease. The person loses judgment, orientation, concentration, calculation, communication skills over a period of time.

ü Vitamin D is called sunshine vitamin.

ü Deficiency of Vitamin A results in night blindness.

ü Deficiency of Vitamin B1 leads to Beriberi.

ü Deficiency of Vitamin B2 leads to  Ariboflavinosis

ü Deficiency of Vitamin C causes Scurvy.

ü Deficiency of vitamin D causes Rickets.

ü Vitamin K-essential for clotting of blood.

ü Vitamin A is called – Retional

ü Vitamin B1is called Thiamine

ü Vitamin B2 is called –Riboflavin

ü Vitamin C is called - Ascorbic acid

ü Insulin was discovered by Fredrick Banting and Charles Best of Canada in the year 1921.

ü Insulin is a hormone secreted by the Pancreas that regulates sugar levels in the body.


ü Carbohydrates are the compounds consisting of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.

ü  Enzymes are made up of Proteins.

ü  Enzyme is a catalyst. It promotes action without direct involvement. Substrate is a It promotes action withou  and Oxygen a to Delhi. e year 1940. Followed by Nehru. ri Ghosh was the presidebstance up on which enzyme acts.

ü There are 23 pairs of chromosomes and total 46 present in a human body cell.

ü Out of these 23 pairs one pair determines the sex. This pair is called sex chromosomes and others are called autosomes.

ü  If the pair contains identical chromosomes XX then the sex is female.

ü If the pair contains different chromosomes X and Y then the sex is male.


ü XX - Female
ü XY - Male

ü  Human blood was classified into A, B, AB and O by K. Landsteiner.

ü  Blood Group “AB” carries no antibody, where as “O” carries antibody “Anti-A and Anti-B”. A carries antibody “Anti-B” and “B” group carries “Anti-A”.

ü  Deficiency of Iodine causes “goiter”.

ü Goiter is the enlargement of thyroid.

ü Deficiency of protein leads to Kwashiorkor.

ü  Deficiency of iron leads to Anemia.

ü  Deficiency of sodium leads to Hyponatremia.

ü  Deficiency of calcium leads to Rickets. 


ü Deficiency of Vitamin A leads to Xerophthalmia /dry eye and Night Blindness.

ü Oxygen is a product of Photosynthesis that comes from water.

ü Lactic acid is present in milk.

ü A bacterium contains only one chromosome.

ü  A plant cell is differentiated from animal cell with the presence of cell wall in plant cell.

ü Mitochondrion is considered to the power house of a cell.

ü Virus that infects a bacterium is called bacteriophage.

ü During photosynthesis plants cool the environment by releasing water through pores or stomata that present on the surface of leaves.

ü Ethylene is used for ripening of fruits.

ü Appendix also called vermix, located near the junction of large intestine and small intestine. This is a vestigial organ (No function).


ü Smallest bone in the human body is “stapes”. This is present in the ear.

ü  The largest bone in the human body is “Femur”. This is present in thigh.

ü The skin is the largest organ of the human body.

ü The smallest muscle in the human body is “Stapedius”. This is also present in the ear. This is attached to Stapes. (The smallest bone).

ü The biggest skeletal muscle is “Gluteus Maximus”. This is a buttock muscle.

ü The longest muscle is ‘Sartorius”. This runs from hip to knee.

ü The strongest muscle is “Masseter”, the chewing muscle.

ü The muscle with the largest surface area is ‘Latissimus Dorsi” that covers the middle portion of the back.

ü The sweat has no odor.

ü There are 9000 taste buds on the tongue.