A SUGGESTION: The Geography subject will be clearer to you, if you look at the map. Please read with a map beside you.

ü  India is the 10th industrialized country in the world.

ü  India is the 6th nation in the world to have gone into outer space.

ü  India is the 7th largest country in the World.

ü  India lies entirely in the northern hemisphere. (Do you know what Northern Hemisphere is?).

ü  India measures 3,214 km from North to South.

ü  India measures 2,933 km from east to west.

ü  The mainland extends between latitudes 8 40 and 37 60 North.

ü  The mainland extends between 68 70 and 97 250 East longitudes.

ü  India’s land frontier is about 15,200 km.

ü  India has a common boarders with
  •       North-west: Afghanistan and Pakistan
  •       North: China, Bhutan and Nepal
  •       East: Myanmar
  •       East of West Bengal : Bangladesh

ü  India is separated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

ü  The plains of the Ganga and the Indus are one of the world’s greatest stretches of flat alluvium and also one of the most densely populated areas on the earth.

ü  Between Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea lies a narrow coastal strip.

ü  Between Eastern Ghats and Bay of Bengal there is a broader coastal area.

ü  Niligiri Hills is the point where the eastern and Western Ghats meets.

ü  Cardamom hills lying beyond may be regarded as a continuation of Western Ghats.

ü  The Indus, which is one of the greatest rivers of the world rises near manasarovar in Tibet and flows through India and thereafter through Pakistan and falls in Arabian Sea near Kutch.

ü  Tributaries of Indus: The Sutlej, the Beas, the Ravi, The Chenab and the Jhelum.

ü  The Ganga-Brahmaputra_Meghana is another important system of which the principle sub basins are those of Bhagirathi and Alakanada join at Dev Prayag to form the Ganga.

ü  The major east flowing rivers are Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery, Mahanadi, etc.

ü  The west flowing rivers Narmada, Tapti and Mahi.

ü  The climate of India is tropical monsoon type.

ü  South-West monsoon is the summer monsoon and wind blows from sea to land after crossing Indian ocean, the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal.

ü  North-east monsoon is known as the winter monsoon and wind blows from land to sea.

ü  Botanical survey of India (BSI) headquarters – Kolkata.

ü  Zoological survey of India (ZSI) headquarters Kolkata.

ü  The tiger and lion belong to cat family.

ü  The salt water crocodile is found along eastern coast and in the Andaman and Nicobar islands.

ü  The first census in India was conducted in the year 1872. It was conducted non-synchronously in different parts.

ü  Since 1881 it was conducted synchronously.

ü  The first census commissioner of India was W W Plowden (1881).

ü  2001 census was undertaken during 9-28 February 2001.

ü  The census moment, the referral time at which the snapshot of the population is taken was 00.00 hours of March 1, 2001.

ü  Until 1991 census, the sunrise of 1 March was taken as the census moment.

ü  India accounts for a meager 2.4 percent of the world’s surface area.

ü  India has 17.5 (2011) percent of World population.

ü  The percent decadal growth of population in the inter-censual period 1991-2001 varies from a low of 9.43 in Kerala to a very high 64.53 in Nagaland.

ü  The population density of India in 2001 was 324 per sq km.

ü  West Bengal is the most thickly populated state with a population density of 903 in 2001.

ü  Delhi is the city with highest population density with 9340.

ü  Lowest population density is in Arunachal Pradesh with 13.

ü  Bihar second and Kerala third.

ü  Sex ration in India 940:1000. (2011 census)

ü  Highest sex ratio is Kerala. 1084:1000. (2011 census)

ü  Who is a literate? A person aged seven and above, who can both read and write any language with understanding is treated as a literate.

ü  In the census prior to 1991 children below 5 years were necessarily treated as illiterates.

ü  The literacy rate in the country is 74.04 percent (2011).

ü   Kerala retained its position by being on top with a 93.91 percent literacy rate (2011).

ü   Highest male and female literacy state Kerala.

ü  Bihar with a literacy rate of 63.82 (2011) percent ranks last in the country.

ü  Lowest male and female literacy state Bihar.

ü  743 million people in India live in rural areas as per the 2001 census.

ü  286 million people in India live in urban areas.

ü  Highly populated state in India is UP with 199 million (2011) people.

ü   Lowest population is in Sikkim with 540,851 people and constitutes 0.05 percent of the total.



ü  The ratio of width of the flag to its length is 2 to 3.

ü  There are 3 colors in the National Flag. Saffron at the top, White in the middle followed by Green at the bottom.

ü  In the middle of the National Flag there is a wheel called Chakra.

ü  The Chakra has 24 spokes.

ü  The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947.

ü  The Flag code of India, 2002, has taken effect from January 26, 2002 and supersedes the ‘Flag code – India’s as it existed.

ü  There shall be no restriction on the display of the National Flag by the members of general public private organizations, educational institutions, etc.

ü  The state emblem is an adoption from the saranath Lion capital of Asoka.

ü  In the sate emblem as adopted on January 26, 1950 only 3 lions are visible and the 4th one is hidden.

ü  The wheel appears in the center of the abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left.

ü  The words “Satyameva Jayate” were taken from the “Mundaka Upanishad”. It means “Truth Alone Triumphs” are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.

ü  The National Anthem Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version as National Anthem on January 24, 1950.

ü  National Anthem was first sung on December 27, 1911 at the Calcutta session of the INC.

ü  The National song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with the National Anthem.

ü  The first political occasion when National song, sung was the 1896 session of the INC.

ü  The National calendar is based on Saka era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from March 22, 1957 with Gregorian calendar.

ü  National Animal: The magnificent tiger, (Panthaera Tigris).

ü  National Bird: The Indian peacock, (Pavo Cristatus).

ü  National Flower: Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn).

ü  National Tree: The Banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis).

ü  National Fruit: Mango (Manigifera Indica).

ü  National River: Ganges


ü  Area-wise Rajasthan is the largest state in India.

ü  Area-wise Goa is the smallest state.

ü  Area-wise Andaman & Nicobar Islands is the largest UT.

ü  Area-wise Lakshadweep is the smallest UT.

ü  Highest population is in UP.

ü  Lowest population is in Sikkim.

ü  Highest population Delhi (UT).

ü  Lowest population Lakshadweep (UT).

ü  Largest country is Russia (area wise).

ü  India is the 7th largest country (area wise).

ü  Highest population – China.

ü  Population wise India is the second largest country in the world.

ü  Andhra Pradesh is the first state in India that has been formed on a purely linguistic basis in 1953 and enlarged in 1956. Andhra state – 1953 and AP in 1956.

ü  Highest number of Assembly seats – UP – 403

ü  Highest number of legislative Council seats – UP – 99.

ü  Highest number of Rajya Sabha seats – UP -31.

ü  Highest number of Lok Sabha seats – UP – 80.

ü  Lowest number of Assembly seats – Sikkim -32.

ü  Lowest number of Legislative Council seats – JK – 36.

ü  Lowest number of Lok Sabha seats – Sikkim – 1.

ü  Lowest number of Rajya Sabha seats – Sikkim, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura and Goa – 1.

ü  The Legislative Councils are present only in six states. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Bihar, UP,  and J&K.

ü  The Tamil Nadu is the latest state to establish  and abolish the Legislative Council. (Legislative Councils are created / abolished by Parliament only).

ü  In Union Territories Delhi has maximum number of seats in Assembly. (70).

ü  Pondicherry has the lowest number of seats in Assembly. (30).

ü  Highest number of districts present in UP. 75 in number

ü  Goa has only 2 districts.

ü  Kutch in Gujarat is the largest district in India. The area is 45,652

ü  Mahe in the state of Kerala is the smallest district in India. The area is 9 Mahe is geographically located in Kerala but administered by Pondicherry.

ü  Drass in Western Ladakh is the coldest place in India. It is also the second coldest place in the World after Siberia.

ü  The High Court was first established in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras in the year 1862.

ü  In the year 2000 three new High Courts were set up in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttaranchal.

ü  In the year 2013 three more High Courts have been set up in Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura.

ü  At present there are 24 High Courts present in India.

ü  N-E states are called “Seven sisters”. (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura).