ü  The level of Industrialization best reflects the level of economic development in a country.
ü  Manufacturing is the main process by which industries convert primary goods into two secondary products by means of value addition, which involves partial or complete transformation of the same.
ü  The location of industries is an important theme in geographical studies.
ü  It depends on both geographic and anthropogenic factors.
ü  Geographical factors include: Raw material, Power, Labour, Transportation, Market, Site, Water supply, Climate.
ü  In non - Geographical factor or Anthropogenic factors are included: Capital, Policies, organization, Banking & Insurance.
ü  Other set of factors : Agglomeration effect, industrial inertia.


ü  This includes cotton, jute, wool, silk and synthetic fiber textiles.
ü  Highest employment in manufacturing sector is found in textile industry particularly in the sector Producing cotton, Jute, wool and silk.

Cotton Textile
ü  The first modern mill was setup in 1818 a Fort Gloster near Calcutta.
ü  The first mission was a failure.
ü  Then, C.N. Dewar made first successful investment in 1854 in Mumbai.
ü  It was followed by Shahpur mill in 1861 and Calico mill in 1863 at threaded.
ü  World War I and II gave a boost to the industry.
ü  However in the year 1947 after partition of the country the industry got a severe jolt as most of the long staple cotton growing area went with Pakistan
ü  While most of the cotton mills remained in India.
ü  Currently it is the largest modernized industry.
ü  It accounts for 16 % of the industrial capital and over 20 percent of the industrial labour of the country.
ü  The total employment generated by cotton industry is 15 trillion.
ü  There are 40 lakh handlooms and 5 lakh power looms in the decentralized sector alone.
ü  In India about 80 percent of the cotton industry is co terminus with the raw material (cotton) growing area. Viz–Ahmedabad, Sholapur, Nagpur etc.


ü  The Maharashtra state produces 43 percent  mill cloths and 17 percent of yarn.
ü  Mumbai is its largest center with 65 mills and is rightly called the cotton palace of India. 
ü  Mumbai has humid climate.
ü  Mumbai has a huge market.
ü  Mumbai has a port for export.
ü  Sholapur, Pune, Kolhapur, Satara, Wardha, Hajpur etc. are other important centers in Maharashtra. .

ü  Gujarat is the 2nd largest producer of cotton textile.
ü  Gujarat produces 23 percent of mill cloths and 8 percent of yarn.
ü  Ahmedabad is the most important centre in Gujarat.
ü  Its development owes much to its location along a cotton growing belt.
ü  Other important centers are Vadodara, Rajkot, Gujarat, Porbandar etc.

Madhya Pradesh:  

ü  Gwalior, Ujjain, Indore, Dewas, Ratlam, Jabalpur etc. are the main centers of production.
ü  Energy supplied from coal resource and cheap labouor due to back ward economy are the primary reason for the development of cotton textile in Madhya Pradesh.
        TAMIL NADU:

ü  Tamil Nadu accounts for 33 percent of the yarn production and 8 percent of the cloths.
ü  Coimbatore is the most important center in Tamil Nadu.
ü  Coimbatore has 200 mills and is known as Manchester of South India.

West Bengal:     

ü  Calcutta is the most important centre in West Bengal.
ü  It enjoys facilities of a port, humid climate.
ü  The areas like Ranigunj, Howra, Murshidabad, Hugali, Shiaimpur etc are the important centres.

Woolen Textile:

ü  The modern woolen textile started with the establishment of ‘Lal Lmali’ at Kanpur in 1876.
ü  It was followed by Dhariwal in 1881 and Mumbai 1882.
ü  At present there are 625 big and small mills, 1,100 hosiery mills and 155 yarn spinning mills are running in India.
ü  Punjab leads all other states in production.
ü  The state of Punjab alone has 42 % of the mills of India.
ü  Dhariwal is the largest center in India.
ü  Others important centers are Amritsar, Ludhiana and Kharer.
ü  Maharashtra is the second largest producer of woolen textiles.
ü  Mumbai is the chief center.
ü  Shahjahanpur, Mirzapur, Varansai, apart from Kanpur are the major woolen textile centers.
ü  Jamnagar, Ahmedabad and Vadodara are important centres in Gujarat.

Silk Industry:

ü  There are four varieties of silk that is produced.
·         Mulberry
·         Tussar
·         Eri
·         Muga

ü  All the four Silk varieties Mulberry, Tussar, Eri and Muga are produced in India.
ü  Due to stiff competition from Italy and Japan the growth of Industry is very sluggish.
ü  Karnataka is the chief silk producer in India.
ü  Karnataka produces 70 percent of the total Mulberry production in India.
ü  Mysore, Bangatan, Kolar, Mandya, Tumkur, Belgaum etc are the other important centers in Karnataka.
ü  The Karnataka state produces 52 per cent of the Silk cloths in India. 
ü  West Bengal is another important state in India.
ü  The West Bengal produces only 13 per cent of the silk and most of which is Mulberry silk only.
ü  Murshidabad,  Birbhum are the important centers in West Bengal.
ü  The states like Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu are the other important states of silk production.

Synthetic Fibre:

ü  The importance of synthetic fiber has revolutionized the textile industry.
ü  It imports durability.
ü  Manmade fibers are generally divided into two groups
·     Cellulose (Rayon & Acetate)
·     Non cellulose (Nylon, Polyester etc).

ü  Cellular pulp is derived from bamboo, Eucalyptus and other softwood trees.
ü  The chemicals used for making thin fibers are country soda, Sodium sulphate, sulphuric acid, carbon disulphide and soda sulphate.
Iron and Steel

ü  Iron and Steel industry is the basis of modern industrialization.
ü  It is the basic and core industry upon which many other industries survive.
ü  Per capita consumption of iron and steel is a good measurement of Industrial development.
ü  The first modern iron and steel industry was established in 1830 at Porto Nova in Tamil Nadu.
ü  It proved to be an abortive attempt.
ü  The real beginnings were made in 1907 at Sakchi (Jamshedpur) by opening the TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company).
ü  Since the Iron and Steel industry uses heavy, weight loosing and huge quantity of raw material, the localization is primarily controlled by the availability of raw materials.
 ü  Therefore, they are either located near the coalfields or iron ore mining areas or at the mean distance from the two.
 ü  A new trend of localization near ports has been set up by the installation of Vizag steel plant in Andhra Pradesh for export proposes.

Production of I & S (SAIL) In ooo, Tones

Plants                 Crude Steel                        Sabale S.                     Pig. Iron.
Bhilai                             4073                          3494                            272
Durgapur                       1024                          947                              104
Rourkela                        1205                          1148                            44
Bokaro                           3680                          3330                            154
Saben                                    -                          48                                -
IISCO                              329                          302                              421s    
Aluminum Smelting:

ü  This is next only to Iron and Steel in terms of usefulness in the modern industries.
ü  About 50 percent of the total Aluminum in India is consumed in the generation and distribution of electricity.
ü  The other important requirements are utensils and domestic wares, transportation and packing. 
ü  Production of one tonne of Aluminum requires 18,573 KWh of electricity.
ü  Thus 40 percent of the production cost goes to electricity alone.
ü  Hence, electricity and occurrence of Bauxite determine the location of an Aluminum plant.
ü  Indian Aluminum Company was started in 1938.
ü  Aluminum Corporation of India started in the year 1937 as a public limited company.
ü  Its plant started functioning in 1942 at Jaykayanagar in West Bengal.
ü  INDAL (Indian Aluminum Company Limited) set up its plant in Alupuram (Kerala).
ü  During second five year plan Hirakud in Orissa and Renukut in UP were installed by INDAL and by HINDALCO at Korba and by BALCO in 1965 and also at Ratnagiri.

ü  Indian Copper Corporation was set up in 1924.
ü  The first Plant was set up at Ghatshila in Singbhum (Jharkhand).
ü  Hindustan Copper Limited came into being in 1967 and took over Indian Copper Corp in 1972.
ü  At present only two centers, Manbhandar (Ghatshila) and Khetri, (Jhunjhunu) are working.

ü  The first lead smelting plant was set up at Tundao near Dhanbad  in Jharkhand.
ü  Hindustan Zinc limited overtook it in 1965.
ü  HZL (Hindustan Zinc Limited) has setup a plant at vizag (Andhra Pradesh) also.
ü  The main ore region lies in Rajasthan at Zawar and Rajpur - Dariba.
ü  There are four Zinc smelters in the country at Alwaye (Kerala), Debari & Chanderia (in Rajasthan) and Vizag Andhra Pradesh)

ü  This is another important industry in India.
ü  The location of fertilizer industry is closely related to petro chemicals.
ü  About 70 per cent of the fertilizer plants producing Nitrogenous fertilizers use Naphtha as raw material and Naphtha is a by - product of oil refineries.
ü  Phosphate Plants are dependent on mineral Phosphate found in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
ü  Recently Natural gas based fertilizer plant are coming into being.
ü  In the year 1906 the first super phosphate plant was established in Ranipet (Tamil Nadu).
ü  The actual growth started with the establishment of Sindri Plant by Fertilizer Corporation of India.
ü  India is fourth largest producer of Nitrogenous Fertilizer in the World.
ü Fertilizer Corporation of India has four units one each at Sindari, Talcher, Gorakhpur and Ramagunbam (AP).

ü  NFL (National Fertilizers Limited) was  established on 23 August, 1974. It has four units.
ü  Two plants (Urea & calcium Ammonium  Nitrate) at Nangal and one each at Bhatinda, Panipat and Vijaipur.
ü  Udyogmandalam, Kochi, Thal, Namrup, Barauni, Paradeep, Amjhor etc. are other important plants.
Machine tools:
ü  The Machine tool industry is also another core industry.
ü  The engineering industries flourish on machine tool industry.
ü  The manufacturing started in 1932 with the advent of Kirloskar Brother Limited.
ü  HMT (Hindustan Machine Tools) is the first large scale modern machine tool factory setup in Publich Sector at Bangalore in 1953, with collaboration of with Switzerland.
ü  The units of HMT are located at Bangalore, Hyderabad. Srinagar, Ajmer and Punjab.
ü  The Heavy Machine tools plant at Ranchi was started in 1966.
ü  Praga Tools limited is located at Hyderabad is mainly meant for defense equiments.
ü  Jadawpur Unit (Calcutta) produces precision instrument.

Railway Locomotives
ü  Chittaranjan Locomotive Work is located in Burdwan district (West Bengal).
ü  This was started in the year 1950.
ü  Prior to 1972 it produced steam locomotives.
ü  Now it produces electric locomotives.
ü  Diesel locomotive works is located at Benaras.
ü  TELCO (Tata Engineering and Locomotives Company) was set up in 1951 at Jamshedpur. BHEL that is located in Bhopal is meant for the production of Electric locomotives.
ü  The BHEL wheel and axel Plant is set up at Bangalore.
ü  The coach factory is set up at Perambadur (Chennai) in 1955.
ü  This was set up with Swiss collaboration.
ü  Bharat movers is located at Bangalore.
ü  Railway coach factory is set up in Kapurthala in the year 1988.
Automobile Industry:

ü  The automobile industry started with General Motor Limited in the year 1928 at Mumbai.
ü  Ford Motors was started at Chennai in the year 1930.
ü  Premier Automobiles Limited started at Kurla (Mumbai).
ü  Hindustan Motor Limited started at Uttarpura (Kolkata).
ü  Motor cycle units started at Faridabad and Mysore.
ü  Scooter units were started in Luck now, Gatura, Akurdi (Pune). Maruti – Gurgaon  (Haryana).


ü  Manufacturing of cement needs voluminous heavy and weight loosing material.
ü  This is primarily a raw material based industry.
ü  Lime stone is the main raw material and it accounts for almost 66 per cent of the total product.
ü  On an average 1.5 tonne of limestone is required to produce one tonne of cement.
ü  Sitia (20–25 per cent) and aluminium (5 -10 per cent) are other inputs.
ü  Coal along with electricity is another input which forms 40 of the total cost.
ü  First mill based on seashell was founded in 1904 in Chennai.
ü  It was proved to be abortive.
ü  Madhya Pradesh is the leading producer of cement (24 per cent), followed by Andhra Pradesh (20 per cent), Rajasthan (11 per cent) Tamil Nadu (8.5 per cent) and Gujarat (8.5 per cent).
Paper industry:

ü  This is both Agro based and forest based industry.
ü  Bamboo, Sabai grass and Bagasse are the chief raw materials.
ü  First factory was set up in 1816 in Chennai.
ü  This was proved to be a failure.
ü  In the year 1870 Royal Bengal Mills was set up at Balygonj, Calcutta and it was sucessful.
ü  The paper industry is a weight loosing industry thus seeks raw Material base.
ü  Maharashtra is the leading producer with18 percent.
ü  The Ballaspur in Maharashtra is the largest mill.
ü  This region uses important raw materials from Sweden and Canada.
ü  Sanjali, Kalyan, Mumbai, Pune are other important centers of paper industry.
ü  Andhra Pradesh occupies 2nd position by producing 13 percent of the total output in India.
ü  Rajmundari, Sirpur, Tirupati, Kurnool, Khamman etc are the chief producing centers in Andhra Pradesh.
ü  Gujarat accounts for 10 percent of the total production.
ü  Uttar Pradesh has highest number of mills (68) accounts  for 9 per cent of the total production.
ü  West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa are other important  states of paper industry. Newsprint production started with setting up of NEPA at Nepanagar in Housheysed district (Madhya Pradesh) in 1955.
ü  Now Mysore paper mills in Shimogha (1981), Hindustan Newsprint at Vellore (1982) and Pugalur in Tamil Nadu (1996) are other important centers.
ü  Raw Materials that are required for the paper industry: Bamboo (70 %), Salai Wood (12 %), Sabai (9 %), Bagasses (4 %), Waste Paper & Rags (5 %).

Sugar Industry:

 ü  The sugar industry is the second largest agro based industry after cotton textile.
 ü  India is the 2nd largest producer of sugar after Cuba. (If Gur & Khandsari are taken into account India is much ahead in sugar production).
 ü  India is the Homeland of Sugarcane.
 ü  Sugarcane is a heavy, weight loosing and perishable raw material.
 ü  It takes 100 tonnes of sugarcane to produces 10 tonnes of sugar.